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The difference between solid-state batteries and liquid batteries

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2024-04-11      Origin: Site

1. The main difference between solid-state batteries and liquid-state batteries is their electrolytes. Liquid batteries use liquid electrolytes, while solid-state batteries use solid electrolytes. The solid electrolyte has a higher dielectric constant and lower ionic conductivity, but has higher chemical and thermal stability, which can improve the safety performance of the battery. At the same time, the solid electrolyte can also achieve higher battery energy density and more energy-saving. Fast charging speed. Relatively speaking, liquid lithium batteries have higher ionic conductivity, can provide higher battery output power, and have lower costs. However, the liquid electrolyte is prone to leakage, fire, and explosion, so it is less safe.

2. Differences in structure

Structurally, solid-state batteries and liquid-state batteries are also different. Liquid lithium batteries mainly include four main materials: positive electrode material, negative electrode material, electrolyte and separator, while solid-state batteries replace the electrolyte and separator with solid electrolytes, and the rest are similar. Solid-state batteries use an almost non-flammable solid electrolyte as the conductive medium, which reduces the temperature sensitivity of the battery pack and eliminates the increased short-circuit probability of lithium dendrites. It can also effectively isolate the positive and negative electrodes with good insulation. Therefore, solid-state batteries have natural advantages in safety.

3. Differences in performance

In terms of performance, solid-state batteries have higher energy density and faster charging speeds. This is because solid-state batteries can change the existing positive and negative electrode systems and use higher specific capacity materials as positive and negative electrodes. For example, the specific capacity of lithium will be more than 10 times that of graphite and 17.5 times that of ternary high-nickel cathodes. This means that under the same volume, solid-state batteries can support longer battery life. On the other hand, the plasticity of solid-state batteries is also quite high. Batteries made of appropriate packaging materials can withstand hundreds to thousands of bends without attenuating performance, and can adapt to more layout methods.

However, solid-state batteries also have some problems. First of all, the cost of solid-state batteries is relatively high, mainly because solid-state batteries currently do not have a complete industrial chain to support them. At the same time, the cost of raw materials is expensive, and there are higher requirements for production processes and production equipment. Secondly, the production process of solid-state batteries is complex and maintenance is difficult, and damaged batteries cannot be repaired.

Solid-state batteries and liquid batteries each have their own advantages and disadvantages and are suitable for different application scenarios. Although liquid lithium batteries are less safe, they are quite mature in terms of cost and performance, and are being continuously improved and optimized. Solid-state batteries have higher safety performance and faster charging speed, and are currently one of the most widely used new battery technologies.

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